Mishan-Dongfanghong railway under the administration of Harbin Railway Administration situated in the east of Heilongjiang province. It started from Mishan railway station, headed for Hulin railway station to the east, then Dongfanghong railway station to the north, passing Yingchun railway station. The eastern area of Mishan belonged to Wandashan mountains, and the railway run along Peideli river and Muling river to Hulin. Then it passed through a dense forest along southern foot of Wandashan mountains and entered into the eastern forest region of Yingchun. The geology along the railway was complicated, and the rock formations consisted of granite, quartzite, basalt and so on.
In 1958, 100 thousand demobilized armymen built an army reclamation farm in Mishan, Hulin, Baoqing and Raohe which located in Wandashan mountains. The farm situated at border area with fertile and broad land as well as vast marsh. It had a cold weather and poor transportation. Chinese government decided to build a railway to connect Mishan and Three River Plain in line with Wang Zhen’s suggestion who was the Minister of Agricultural Reclamation at that time. Later, the government was determined to build Mishan-Dongfanghong railway at first.
The survey and design of Mishan-Dongfanghong railway was undertaken by Northeastern Agricultural Reclamation Bureau, and the construction was conducted by Mutankiang Agricultural Reclamation Bureau. Divided into three sections, the railway started to construct by 3000 builders in March, 1958. Mishan-Hulin section was put into operation in August, 1958. A ceremony was held to celebrate that Hulin-Yingchun section was open to traffic in the end of 1959. People's Daily issued an article for it: Train Runs into the Great Northern Wilderness of China. The Pinus koraiensis used to build the Great Hall of the People was transported by the railway in 1959. In the Spring of 1962, the eastern terminal of the railway was built up and named Dongfanghong which meant it was the very place in China that embraced the sunlight at the earliest and represented dawn and hope. Mishan-Dongfanghong railway was put into operation in August, 1962 and administrated by Wandashan Forestry Bureau of Mutankiang Agricultural Reclamation Bureau.
Harbin Railway Administration took over the railway in October, 1965. The conditions of the railway were not good with insufficient width of subgrade, old rails, 40% decayed sleepers and wooden bridges. The administration implemented renovation for it, changed a mass of sleepers and rails and carried out technical transformation for wooden bridges year by year. 35 wooden bridges were transformed into reinforced concrete bridges by the end of 1985. With the top speed of 55km/h, Hulin-Dongfanghong railway made a significant contribution to developing the Great Northern Wilderness of China.